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This clade includes the organisms that eons ago acquired their chloroplasts directly by engulfing cyanobacteria (e.g., Plantae Another way of looking at the relationships between the different groups that have been called "plants" is through a cladogram, which shows their evolutionary relationships.The evolutionary history of plants is not yet completely settled, but one accepted relationship between the three groups described above is shown below.Plants that produce grains, fruits and vegetables form humankind's basic foodstuffs, and have been domesticated for millennia. They are used as ornaments and, until recently and in great variety, they have served as the source of most medicines and drugs.The scientific study of plants is known as botany, a branch of biology.Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts, derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria.Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color.The Viridiplantae, the green plants – green algae and land plants – form a clade, a group consisting of all the descendants of a common ancestor.
This is the broadest modern definition of the term 'plant'. brown algae/diatoms, haptophytes, dinoflagellates, and euglenids) not only have different pigments but also have chloroplasts with three or four surrounding membranes.Some plants are parasitic and have lost the ability to produce normal amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize.Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations, although asexual reproduction is also common.Two additional groups, the Rhodophyta (red algae) and Glaucophyta (glaucophyte algae), also have chloroplasts that appear to be derived directly from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria, although they differ in the pigments which are used in photosynthesis from those of the Viridiplantae and so are different in colour.In these groups, the storage polysaccharide is floridean starch and is stored in the cytoplasm rather than in the plastids.