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It later expanded again to include the far northern lands beyond the Baltic and another and dazzling civilization in the Far East (the medieval view).
The earliest known surviving map, dating probably from the time of ), shows canals or rivers—perhaps the Tigris and a tributary—and surrounding mountains.
Pytheas returned to Brittany and explored “beyond the Rhine”; he may have reached the Elbe.
The voyage of Pytheas, like that of Hanno, does not seem to have been followed up.
The rapid colonization of the shores of the Mediterranean and of the Black Sea by Phoenicia and the Greek city-states in the 1st millennium ) with a geographical description of the then known world: this introductory material reveals that the coastlines of the Mediterranean and the Black Sea had by then been explored.
The lines of demarcation represent an early division between the territory of Spain (to the west) and Portugal (to the east).But most Norsemen sailing in high latitudes explored not eastward but westward.Sweeping down the outer edge of Britain, settling in Orkney, Shetland, the Hebrides, and Ireland, they then voyaged on to Iceland, where in 870 they settled among Irish colonists who had preceded them by some two centuries.Herodotus tells of five young adventurers of the tribe of the Nasamones living on the desert edge of Cyrenaica in North Africa, who journeyed southwest for many months across the desert, reaching a great river flowing from west to east; this presumably was the Niger, although Herodotus thought it to be the Upper Nile.with 60 ships and 30,000 colonists “to found cities.” Even allowing for a possible great exaggeration of numbers, this expedition, if it occurred, can hardly have been the first exploratory voyage along the coast of West Africa; indeed, Herodotus reports that Phoenicians circumnavigated the continent about 600 .